Pathology: The Science- Footnotes

[the science]

1 Max Houck, Modern Methods of Solving Crime (Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 2007) @p 49-51 [Houck]

2 Stuart James and Jon Nordby, Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, 2d ed (Florida: CRC Press, 2005) @p 19 [James & Nordby]

3 Houck, supra note 1 @p 51

Ibid @p 50

5 James & Nordby, supra note 2 @p 43

Ibid.

7 Houck, supra note 1 @p 51

8 James & Nordby, supra note 2 @p 44

9 Houck, supra note 1 @p 52

10 Ibid @p 57

11 Ibid

12 Ibid

13 Ibid

14 Ibid @p 53

15 James & Nordby, supra note 2 @p 53

16 Ibid @p 21

17 Ibid @p 55

18 Ibid @p 56

19 Houck, supra note 1 @p 55

20 James & Nordby, supra note 2 @p 55

21 Ibid

22 Houck, supra note 1 @p 53

23 Ibid

24 James & Nordby, supra note 2 @p 46

25 Ibid @p 47

26 Ibid @p 8

27 Ibid

28 Ibid @p 47

29 Ibid

30 Ibid @p 56

31 Houck, supra note 1 @p 56

32 James & Nordby, supra note 2 @p 57

33 Max Houck and Jay Siegel, Fundamentals of Forensic Science (Oxford: Elsevier, 2006) at 168 [Houck & Siegel]

34 Ibid

35 Ibid

36 Ibid

37 Houck, supra note 1 @p 59

38 Ibid

39 Ibid @p 61

40 Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario: Executive Summary, vol 1 (Toronto: Ministry of the Attorney General, 2008) at 6 [Goudge Report volume 1]

41 Ibid at 12-13

42 Jeffrey Manishen, “Wrongful Convictions and Pediatric Forensic Pathology” Ross & McBride LLP (3 October 2011)

43 Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario: Systemic Review, vol 2 (Toronto: Ministry of the Attorney General, 2008) @p 22 [Goudge Report volume 2]

44 Ibid @p 27

45 Goudge Report volume 1, supra note 40 @p 14

46 Goudge Report volume 2, supra note 43 @p 11

47 Goudge Report volume 1, supra note 40 @p 16

48 Ibid @p 15

49 Ibid @p 7

50 R v Mullins-Johnson2007 ONCA 720 – At trial, Smith misidentified a natural post-mortem relaxation and expansion of the anus as signs of sexual injury and abuse. In 2007, a new team of forensic pathologists revealed that this change was a natural occurrence and William Mullins-Johnson’s conviction for the first degree murder of his niece, Valin, was subsequently overturned.       

51 R v Sherret-Robinson2009 ONCA 886  – At trial, Smith testified that the infant had died of asphyxiation, likely as a result of smothering or suffocation by a third party. In 2009, a new team of experts concluded that there were no signs of smothering or suffocation, and that the child likely died accidentally. Sherry Sherret-Robison’s conviction for  the first degree murder of her son was subsequently overturned.  

52 R v Marquardt2011 ONCA 281  – At trial, Smith testified that the infant had died of asphyxiation, likely as a result of smothering or suffocation by a third party. In 2011, a new team of experts concluded that there were no signs of smothering or suffocation and that the child may have died suddenly and naturally. Tammy Marquardt, the mother, was subsequently expected to undergo a new trial, but murder charges were dropped in 2011.

53 Goudge Report volume 1, supra note 40 @p 21-22

54 Ibid @p 11

55 Ibid @p 22 & 24

56 Ibid

57 Ibid @p 35

58 Ibid @p 11-12

59 Ibid @p 35

60 Ibid @p 43-44

61 Ibid @p 47-48

62 Office of the Chief Coroner, Publications and Reports- Death Investigations

63 Coroners Act, RSO 1990, c C.37 s 1 [Coroners Act]

64 Ibid @s 7(1)

65 Ibid @s 29(1)

66 Ibid @s 6

67 Ontario Forensic Pathology Service [OFPS]

68 Coroners Actsupra note 63 @s 7.1(1)

69 OFPS, supra note 67

70 Ibid

71 Coroners Act, supra note 63 @s 8.1(1)

72 OFPS, supra note 67

73 “Subspecialty Training Requirements in Forensic Pathology” (1 July 2012) Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

74 Ibid