Firearms: The Science- Footnotes

[the science]

1 s.84(1) Criminal Code

2 s.84(3) Criminal Code

3 s.84(1) Criminal Code

4 Max M Houck & Jay A Siegel, Fundamentals of Forensic Science (London: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2006) ch 21 at 575ff [Houck & Siegel].

5 Walter F Rowe, “Firearm and Tool Mark Examinations” in Stuart J James & Jon J Nordby, eds. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques” (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005) 391 at 396ff [Rowe].

Rowesupra note 5 at 397.

Houck & Siegelsupra note 4 at 577.

R v TCM, 2007 BCSC 1778, 77 WCB (2d) 393, at 47.

Rowesupra note 5.

10 Rowe,supra note 5 at 398.

11 Rowe at 399.

12 Houck & Siegelsupra note 4 at 577.

13 bid.

14 bid.

15 Rowe at 392.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Howe at 393.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Houck and Siegel, at 573.

23 Houck and Siegel, at 574.

24 Murray Smith, “Firearms and Tool Marks” (Lecture delivered at the Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa, 2011), [unpublished] [Smith].

25 Howe at 402.

26 Houck and Siegel at 582.

27 Ibid.

28 Houck and Siegel at 583.

29 Supra note 25.

30 Ibid.

31 Houck and Siegal at 583.

32 Ibid.

33 Howe at 404.

34 Howe at 405.

35 Rex v Nahirniak, [1931] 2 WWR 604 at para 14.

36 R v Prince, [1945] BCJ 15 at para 25.

37 Howe at 409.

38 Ibid.

39 Houck and Siegel at 589.

40 bid.

41 bid.

42 Howe at 410.

43 bid.

44 Houck and Siegel at 588-591.

45 Infrared photography—used on dark or blood-soaked clothing. Elements of GSR absorb infrared radiation, therefore enable detection by the human eye.

46 Griess test—the GSR is transferred onto photographic paper that reacts with the nitrates in GSR to form a dye and thus a visible pattern.

47 Sodium rhodizonate is a liquid solution that can be sprayed on GSR patterns that have been transferred to paper. The lead within the residue reacts with the spray and turns a bright pink or purplish-blue. Lead-free ammunition does exist.

48 Houck and Siegel at 593.

49 Smith, supra note 1.

50 bid.

51 Houck and Siegel at 594.

52 Howe at 414-415.

53 Houck and Siegel at 595.

54 Howe at 416-417.