Fingerprints: The Science- Footnotes

[the science]

 

1 Robert E Gaensslen & Kimberly R Young, “Fingerprints” in Stuart H James & Jon J Nordby, eds, Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques (Boca Raton FL: CRC Press) 341 at 342 [Gaensslen & Young]. 

2 Sharath Pankanti, Salil Prabhakar & Anil K Jain, “On the Individuality of Fingerprints” (2002) 24:8 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence at 2.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.

5 Wisconsin Department of Justice, Crime Information Bureau Identification Manual, available online <http://www.doj.state.wi.us>  page 91

6 ibid.

7 New Mexico Department of Health, Fingerprint Techniques Manual, online: <dhi.health.state.nm.us> at 8-10.

8 Davide Maltoni, Dario Maio, Anil K Jain & Salil Prabhakar, Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition (New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York Inc, 2002) at p 85.

9 Ibid, all glossary terms.

10 Gaensslen & Young at 349.

11 Ibid. 

12 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 349.

13 Ibid.

14 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 350.

15 Campbell, supra note 10.

16 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 351.

17 Arrowhead Forensics, Latent Prints, Dusting Brushes and Applicators, online: <www.crime-scene.com>.

18 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 352.

19 Ibid.

20 Pat A Wertheim, “Ninhydrin Processing” Crimes & Clues: The Art & Science of Criminal Investigation(December 1997), online: <www.crimeandclues.com>. 

21 Ibid

22 Henry C Lee & Robert Gaensslen, “Methods of Latent Print Development” in Henry C Lee & Robert Gaensslen, eds, Advances in Fingerprint Technology (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001) 105 at 117-118 [Lee & Gaensslen].

23 Gareth Branwyn, “Forensics Lab 8.0: Revealing Latent Fingerprints – Introduction” Make Magazine (16 August 2009), online: <www.makezine.com>.

24 ibid

25 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 346.

26 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 347.

27 Royal Canadian Mounted Police, “Regional Automated Fingerprint Access System” (8 August 2011), online: <www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca>.

28 Tom Adair, “AFIS: The Automated Fingerprint Identification System” Forensics4Fiction (1 September 2011), online: <www.forensics4fiction.com> [Adair].

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32  Royal Canadian Mounted Police, “Real Time Identification Project” (8 August 2011), online: <www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca>.

33 David Ashbaugh, Introduction to the Scientific Basis and Identification Process of Friction Ridge and Palmar Flexion Crease Identification, text from Ridgeology Consulting Services Forensic Ridgeology Course at 37 [Ashbaugh text].

34 Christophe Champod, Chris Lennard, Pierre Margot & Milutin Stoilovic, Fingerprints and Other Skin Impressions (Boca Raton FL: CRC Press LLC, 2004) at 9.

35 Ridges and Furrows, Friction Skin Growth, online <www.ridgesandfurrows.com>

36 Ibid

37 Katherine Harmon, “Can You Lose Your Fingerprints?” Scientific American (29 May 2009), online: <www.scientificamerican.com>.

38 Ibid.

39 Simon Cole, The Myth of Fingerprints (13 May 2001), online: The New York Times <http://nytimes.com> [Cole].

40 Sharath Pankanti, Salil Prabhakar & Anil K Jain, “On the Individuality of Fingerprints” (2002) 24:8 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence at 2.

41 David Ashbaugh, “Ridgeology: Modern Evaluative Friction Ridge Identification” Royal Canadian Mounted Police—Forensic Identification Support Section (10 March 1999), pdf, online: <onin.com/fp/ridgeology.pdf> at 18 [Ashbaugh—Ridgeology].

42 John Roach, “‘No Two Snowflakes the Same’ Likely True, Research Reveals”, online: National Geographic <http://news.nationalgeographic.com>.

43 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 1 at 357.

44 Campbell, supra note 10.

45 Gaensslen & Young, supra note 33.

46 “Resolution 2009-18” International Association for Identification, online: <www.cbdiai.org>.Resolution 2009-18, the amended version of the 1973 Resolution RESOLVED, the official position of the I.A.I., effective August 21, 2009, is as follows: “There currently exists no scientific basis for requiring a minimum amount of corresponding friction ridge detail information between two impressions to  arrive at an opinion of single source attribution.”

47 Ridges & Furrows, The Friction Ridge Identification Process: AVE-V Worksheet, pdf online: <www.ridgesandfurrows.com>; Campbell, supra note 10.

48 Ibid

49 Ibid.

50 bid.

51 Ibid.

52 L Haber & NH Haber, “Error Rates for Human Latent Print Examiners” NK Rathka, ed, Advances in Automatic Fingerprint Recognition, (New York: Springer Verlag, 2003).

53 United States v Llera Plaza, 188 F Supp (2d) 549 (2002) [Plaza].

54] I Evett & R Williams, “A Review of the Sixteen Point Fingerprint Standards in England and Wales” (1996) 46 Journal of Forensic Identification 49.

 In 2000 England and Wales abolished the 16 point standard and identifications are based on the examiner’s judgment that there is a sufficient amount of corresponding ridge detail to justify the identification

55 Ashbaugh—Ridgeology, supra note 52.

56 David Ashbaugh, Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: An Introducton to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology (Boca Ration, FL: CRC Press) at 1.

57 M Leanne Gray, Testifying to the Question of "Points", 55 Journal of Forensic Identification 165 (March 2005) [Gray].

58 Gary W Jones, “Are You Prepared?” FDIAI News, (April—June 2001), pdf, online: <www.fdiai.org> at 8,9.

59 Ibid.

60 David Heath & Hal Bernton, Portland Lawyer Released in Probe of Spain

Bombings (21 May 2004), online: Seattle Times <http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/

localnews/2001934919_mayfield21m.html> [Heath].

61 Ibid.

62 John Leyden, FBI Apology for Madrid Bomb Fingerprint Fiasco (26 May 2004), online: The Register <http://www.theregister.co.uk> [Leyden].

63 Sarah Kershaw & Eric Lichtblau. Spain had doubts before US help (26 May 2004), online: The New York Times <http://www.nytimes.com>.

64 Leyden, supra note 60.

65 “Background—About the Inquiry” The Fingerprint Inquiry of Scotland, online: <www.thefingerprintinquiryscotland.co.uk>.